Prostate cancer definition
Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells form in the prostate. These cells can continue to multiply in an uncontrollable manner and sometimes spread out of the prostate to nearby or distant parts of the body.
Prostate cancer is generally a slow-growing disease and most men with low-grade prostate cancer live for many years without symptoms and without the disease spreading and becoming life-threatening. However, the disease in a high degree spreads quickly and can be fatal. Correct handling is key.
Only men have the prostate, which is a small gland located below the bladder near the rectum. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, which is the passage inside the penis through which urine and semen pass
The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system, and it secretes most of the fluid from which semen is formed, which nourishes semen. The prostate needs the male hormone testosterone to grow and grow
The prostate is often described as the size of a walnut and naturally gets bigger as men get older. Sometimes this can pose problems, such as difficulty urinating. These problems are common in elderly men and are not always symptoms or signs of cancer
Prostate cancer diagnosis
If your doctor discovers an abnormality during prostate cancer screening, he or she may recommend further tests to determine whether you have prostate cancer, such as :
- Ultrasound (ultrasonic transducer). During a transrectal ultrasound, a small probe, the size and shape of a cigar, is inserted into the rectum. The probe uses sound waves to create an image of the prostate gland.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In some cases, your doctor may recommend an MRI of the prostate to obtain a more detailed image. MRI images may help your doctor plan the medical procedure needed to remove samples of prostate tissue.
- Collect a sample of prostate tissue. To determine whether cancer cells are present in the prostate, your doctor may recommend a specific medical procedure to collect a sample of prostate cells (called a prostate biopsy). Prostate biopsy is often done by inserting a thin needle into the prostate to collect tissue. The tissue sample is examined in the laboratory to determine if there are any cancerous cells.
Prostate cancer symptoms
Prostate cancer may not have signs or symptoms in its early stages.
More advanced prostate cancer may produce signs and symptoms, such as :
- Urination problems
- Weak force of flow into the urethra
- Appearance of blood in the urine
- blood in semen
- bone pain
- Lose weight without trying
- Erectile dysfunction
prostate cancer stages
- Stage 1 : The cancer is only present in the prostate.
- Stage 2 : The cancer has spread to all parts of the prostate, but has not reached the rest of the body.
- Stage 3 : The cancer begins to spread around the seminal vesicles, and the cure rate in this stage is about 50%.
- Stage 4 : the cancer has spread throughout the body, including: the bladder, rectum, bones, etc., and the cure rate is low.
Prostate cancer prevention
You can reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer if you follow these guidelines :
- Choose a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that may improve your health.
- However, the question that prostate cancer can be prevented by eating a healthy diet has not been proven conclusively yet. But eating a healthy diet that includes a variety of fruits and vegetables will improve your overall health anyway.
- Eat healthy foods instead of supplements. Studies haven’t shown that nutritional supplements have a role in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. So choose foods rich in vitamins and minerals to maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body.
- Do sports most days of the week. Exercising improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and changes your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you are exercising for the first time, start gradually and increase the time each day.
- Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, do more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help in developing a healthy weight loss plan.
- Talk to your doctor about an increased risk of prostate cancer. If you’re at high risk, you and your doctor consider medications or other treatments that can reduce this risk. Some studies suggest that taking alpha-5 reductase inhibitors, which include finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), might reduce the risk of prostate cancer. These medications are used to reduce prostate gland enlargement and hair loss.
However, some evidence suggests that some people taking these medications may make them more likely to develop a very serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). Talk to your doctor if you’re concerned about your risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer treatment
- Removal of the prostate : This is done by surgery, and this treatment is used in advanced cases, to prevent the spread of cancer to the rest of the body.
- Removal of the testicles : This treatment is used to remove the cells around the prostate.
- Cryotherapy : The prostate is injected with liquid nitrogen, which in turn helps to get rid of cancer cells.
- Radiation therapy : Radiation is used to target cancerous cells in the prostate to kill them.
- Hormone therapy : The patient is given anti-androgens.
- Chemotherapy : The patient is given an intravenous injection to kill the cancerous cells in the prostate.
- Ultrasound : A specialized device is inserted into the rectum, and thus kills cancer cells.