Quantum physics

The beginning of quantum mechanics

Physics is the science in which experiment is its main focus and is based on it. Physical theories must agree with experiments in order to be accepted. After the middle of the nineteenth century, physics appeared after experiments that showed strange results. These experiments were related to the study of molecules and the behavior of atoms, and gave results that did not agree. For the classical explanation of these phenomena, the results led to thinking about some basic physics principles and the necessity of explaining natural phenomena in an innovative and different way from the past, which was known as quantum mechanics.

Quantum theory emerged when classical physics failed to explain some phenomena, the most prominent of these phenomena were black body radiation, Compton effect, the photoelectric phenomenon, as well as the emission lines of the hydrogen atom. A complexity that we would not have been able to observe had it not been for the advent of quantum mechanics.

Founder of quantum mechanics

The foundations of modern quantum mechanics were laid in the middle of the twentieth century by a group of scientists including Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Macky Born. The official announcement of the theory of quantum mechanics with the cooperation of a number of scientists including David Hilbert, Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, which helped the emergence of other fields such as quantum chemistry and quantum electronics, and conflicted with recent developments of theories such as string theory and theories of quantum gravity, and the theory of quantum mechanics provided an explanation Many of the features of the periodic table of the chemical elements and a description of the behavior of atoms when a chemical reaction occurs, the formation of bonds, and how electrons flow in the semiconductors used in computer chips, which is one of the modern technologies.

Schrödinger’s cat

Schrödinger’s cat is a concept introduced by German theoretical physicist Erwin Schrödinger to explain a different and strange concept in a famous long article on the interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Schrödinger imagined a mental experiment in which a cat was locked inside a box with a lid, and the cat had a Geiger counter and such a small amount of a radioactive substance that the probability of one atom decaying within one hour was exactly fifty percent. If an atom decays, the Geiger counter will instantly record a series of accidents resulting in the release of enough hydrocyanic acid to kill the cat immediately. When the observer tries to anticipate what he will see when the lid is lifted from a quantum mechanical perspective when the clock has passed, he can only ascribe to the whole system – the box and its contents – a wave function that describes the cat as being in two equal superposition states. alive and dead.

The subject of superposition is known to the atoms. As for the cat, if an outside observer looks at the box after the hour has passed, he will find one of two results: the cat is dead or alive.

There is no known physical observation corresponding to the state of superposition, i.e. the state of the superposition is not a distinct or subjective state of any realistic quantity that can be imagined and observed. The observer is forced to choose between the life or death of the cat.

Quantum mechanics theory

It is the science that is concerned with studying the behavior of matter and light at the atomic or subatomic level, and is interested in explaining everything related to the atom of components and molecules such as electrons, protons, neutrons and other smaller particles such as quarks and gluons and describing their properties, and one of the important characteristics of its interpretation is the interactions of small particles with each other and with Light and electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, where the behavior of particles in the presence of light seems unacceptable, so it is difficult to understand and recognize the results of quantum mechanics theory, because it contradicts sound logical concepts, and because quantum mechanics theory deals with the atomic level, it may not correspond to perceptions Physics that describes levels greater than the atomic level that anyone who does not specialize in physics imagines, and here is some information that helps answer the question of what is the theory of quantum mechanics, as follows :

  • Quantum mechanics theory emerged due to the failure of classical physics to explain why light is absorbed and emitted.
  • Explains the basic methodology underlying physics.
  • It has largely succeeded in the correct results given by it in every interpretation to which it has been applied.
  • The radiation produced by atoms at low pressure is found to be a set of discrete wavelengths.
  • Bohr found that Newton’s laws that explain motion can be applied to electrons orbiting the nucleus.
  • Quantum mechanics has provided a better explanation and description of the atom, especially the difference in the spectra of light emitted by different isotopes of the same chemical element.
  • Quantum mechanics could not measure without disturbing the order or the so-called principle of indeterminacy.
  • Interpretation of the wave particle property of atoms.

Quantum mechanics theory applications

The theory of quantum mechanics has achieved great success in explaining the behavior of atoms and many other areas of life, even modern technology is based on the principle of quantum mechanics theory. After knowing what quantum mechanics theory is, it is necessary to know its most important applications, which are as follows :

  • Design of laser, electron microscopy, transistors, diode and magnetic resonance imaging system.
  • Flash memory or flash memory used in modern computers.
  • Encryption to transfer data securely without being stolen.
  • The development of a quantum computing system in computers that helps facilitate quantitative calculations and statistics, or the so-called quantum computing system, which is useful in the fields of medicine, computational security, financial services, logistics and artificial intelligence.
  • Transfer of information over long distances using quantum teleportation technology.
  • Interpretation of the phenomenon of superconductivity and the phenomenon of non-frictional flow of liquid at low temperatures near zero.
  • Explanation of unexplained phenomena before that, such as the radiation from the black body and the stability of the orbits in which electrons move in the atomic level.
  • Explain the work of many different biological systems such as odor receptors in the nose, protein structures, and the process of photosynthesis that occurs in plants and some other types of living organisms.

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