Solar energy

definition of solar energy

Solar energy, or the so-called solar energy, is the energy emitted from the sun’s rays mainly in the form of heat and light, and it is the product of nuclear reactions inside the star closest to us, which is the sun. This energy produced far exceeds the current energy requirements of the world in general, and if harnessed and exploited appropriately, it could meet all future energy needs.

History of solar energy

The photovoltaic cell was invented in 1954 by researchers at Bell Laboratories. Since that time, solar cells have been used in small things like calculators. It was also an important power source for spaceships and satellites.

Beginning in the 1990s, governments funded scientific research and provided tax incentives to people who used clean, renewable energy such as solar power. Scientists have made progress in the efficiency of solar cells. Today’s solar cells are about 5 to 15% efficient, which means that a lot of the energy coming from the sun’s rays is wasted. They hope to achieve 30% or better in the future. This will make solar energy a clean, economical alternative to energy.

Solar panels

Solar panels are the most common among the energy conversion tools for collecting energy. These panels consist of a dark metal plate covered with one or two sheets of glass that absorbs heat. The heat is transferred to air or water called carrier fluids, which flow through the back of the panel. This heat can be used directly Or they can be transferred to another medium and flat-panel collectors are used to heat homes and water. These collectors have temperatures from 150° to 200° F (66° to 93° C) and an efficiency of up to 80%.

photovoltaic cells

Solar radiation can be directly converted into electricity by photovoltaic cells or solar cells, in such cells when light strikes the junction between a metal and a semiconductor (such as silicon) or the junction between two different types of semiconductors a small electrical voltage is generated, usually the energy that A single photovoltaic cell is only about 2 watts but by connecting large numbers of individual cells together as in solar panel arrays hundreds or even thousands of kilowatts of electrical power can be generated in a solar power plant. The energy efficiency of most photovoltaic cells at present is only about 15% to 20%, and since the intensity of solar radiation is initially low, huge and expensive assemblies of these cells are required to produce moderate amounts of energy. They are now only used in low-power applications eg as power sources for calculators and clocks. Larger units have been used to provide power for water pumps, communications systems in remote areas, and weather and communications satellites.

solar energy storage

The level of solar energy collection changes with the climate so it is difficult to supply energy needs permanently, and therefore some form of energy storage is necessary to provide it for use in times when there is little or no sunlight. Electrical energy from photovoltaic cells can be stored in electrical storage batteries, and in systems that use combined energy to heat liquids, liquids can be stored directly in insulated tanks or the energy can be transferred to another storage medium such as a layer of rock.

Advantages of electricity generated from solar energy

There are many advantages and advantages that distinguish solar energy and the electricity generated from it, the most important of which are :

  • The cost of producing and generating energy is low.
  • Ensuring the elimination of high electricity prices for homeowners.
  • A renewable and permanent source of energy, NASA has estimated that the sun will continue to shine for 6.5 billion years.
  • It is environmentally friendly and does not cause pollution.
  • Radiation is widely available geographically. Reducing the cost of consumed electricity (as home owners can sell the surplus after energy production).
  • The use of collective solar panels reduces and overcomes the problems of individual installation and installation for each home.
  • Fewer moving parts, hence less need for maintenance compared to wind-generated energy.
  • Financial support from governments and countries.

Solar energy in Germany

The Center for Research on Solar Energy and Water Economy in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg said that the share of renewable energy consumption in the country rose three percent over the same period last year in Germany.

The center added that the percentage of renewable energy consumption during the months of January, April and May reached 43 percent because the wind was stronger and the sun’s brightness was better. The center also indicated that if the wind blowing during the fourth quarter of this year was at an average level, the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix in Germany for the year 2018 as a whole would barely reach 38 percent.

In the same context, the « Local De » website of the German news agency had stated in a detailed report published in the middle of this year that solar power plants produced 104 billion kilowatts during the first half of this year.

The windmills contributed to the production of green electric energy in Germany and in the surrounding seas. The report quoted figures from the Eon Energy Company that windmills generated 55 billion kilowatts during the first half of 2018.

Solar energy in Morocco

Morocco has made a big name for itself as a leading country in the fight against climate change. Renewable energy accounts for nearly two-fifths of the country’s electric power. Some subsidies for fossil fuels have been phased out, and the country is implementing some of the world’s largest clean energy projects.

As a result, the country has received a lot of praise for its actions aimed at reducing carbon emissions.

Although Morocco deserves this commendation, it still faces real challenges. Its geographic location in a hotspot of rising temperatures makes it vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Even as the country seeks to end its dependence on fossil fuels, its energy needs are rising very quickly.

Despite these challenges, Morocco has enormous natural potential to produce solar, wind and hydro, and has taken important steps to realize this.

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