Definition of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy It is the energy resulting from a nuclear reaction. These reactions occur between the nuclei to produce huge amounts of energy when the bonds between atoms are reformed through the process of fusion or fission.
Types of nuclear energy
- Nuclear fission energy : In this reaction, a neutron penetrates the core of the nuclei of heavy elements to split them into two or more halves, resulting in huge amounts of thermal, kinetic and radioactive energy. This is the type of process used in nuclear power plants.
- Fusion nuclear energy : Atoms are fused or fused together to become larger atoms, and this merger produces a very large amount of energy, which is the same interactions that provide the sun with energy.
Nuclear energy uses
- Peaceful uses : In addition to generating electricity, nuclear energy is used in many areas that include consumer products such as smoke detectors, cameras, sterilization of cosmetics and medical dressings, in addition to its use in food and agriculture, medicine and scientific research, water desalination, and space exploration.
- Other warlike : nuclear bombs, armor-piercing ammunition and a means of shielding for some tanks and in civil industries, especially balancing devices in aircraft and ships. Depleted uranium is also used in the manufacture of dynamic missiles of caliber 105 mm and 120 mm for the M1 and M60 series of tanks, in 25 mm Bradley projectiles and 30 mm aircraft projectiles, in addition to dynamic missiles with a superior ability to attack. Penetration of armored and fortresses, and self-propelled ballistic missiles.
Historical nuclear fission
In 1934, Enrico Fermi aimed neutrons at uranium, but he did not succeed in explaining the results.
In 1938, the German chemist Otto Hahn, his colleague Lise Meitner and their colleague Fritz Strassmann, were to repeat the experiment using high-purity uranium, and the result was that they found new elements formed without explaining the reason.
At the beginning of 1939, Atohan and Strassmann understood the explanation of the interaction that took place and that it was fission of the nucleus of the uranium atom and the formation of barium, and he published the results of his research in the scientific journal.
At the same time, Meitner, with the help of Fritsch, was able to explain the uranium experiment as nuclear fission. 200Mev) is liberated from every split, which is a very extreme energy.
History of the discovery of nuclear fusion
In the year 1951 AD, by the scientist Lyman Spitzer.
This discovery: The opposite of fission, fusion involves the union of two nuclei of atoms into one larger atom, releasing huge amounts of energy.
The importance of nuclear energy
In the middle of the last century, research and development began to use atomic (nuclear) energy in the production of electricity to provide the world with a low-cost and high-efficiency energy source.
On September 3, 1948 AD, for the first time, electricity was generated by the nuclear reactor in a graphite reactor in the state of Tennessee in the United States, and on June 27, 1954 the world’s first nuclear power plant was established in Obninsk to generate electricity to operate the electricity network in the Soviet Union and named Obninsk as the first The complete power plant in the world.
It is worth noting that nuclear energy is the only source that can reliably generate large amounts of electricity – known as primary load electricity – without emitting any harmful gases such as greenhouse gases.
In addition, nuclear energy is one of the sources that have the lowest environmental impacts, whether on land or natural resources, among all other sources of electricity production.
Nuclear energy has provided the world with a reliable and efficient source of electricity, and today there are more than 450 nuclear plants in more than 30 countries around the world.
Nuclear energy in Germany
35 years after the construction of the nuclear reactor for the Grundy power plant in Lower Saxony in Germany, controversy still exists about it and about other nuclear reactors in the country. Huge demonstrations accompanied its construction phase, but it was decided to stop operating it at the end of this year, and the dismantling process will take at least 10 years. . Ten years after the Fukushima disaster, denuclearization has become a reality in Germany. It is true that Germany has advanced in the development of renewable energies over the past ten years, which now represents about 50 percent of the country’s total energy volume, but the development of wind pumps or photovoltaic parks is facing increasing resistance from the local population.